## RMS Value of a Trapezoidal Waveform Calculator

This calculator determines the RMS value of a trapezoidal waveform. Figure 1 shows the waveform and its parameters. All you need to do is to input the time values t1, t2, t3, the signal period T and the signal amplitude Vp. Each time has to have the same units. If you set t1 in microseconds, as an example, all the other time values, t2, t3 and T have to have the same units, microseconds. Vp is a voltage level, in Volts, but the calculator can also be used for currents.

## Differential Amplifier Output Common-Mode Voltage Calculator

A differential amplifier frequent use is the amplification of the voltage difference between its inputs, while rejecting the common-mode level.  However, the output common-mode level cannot be zero.  The operational amplifier technological limitations, as well as the outside resistor tolerances let the common-mode voltage to make it to the amplifier output as an output error.  As a consequence, the amplifier output voltage is the input signal difference times gain, plus the output common-mode voltage.

## Differential Amplifier Calculator

### Unipolar to Bipolar Converter Example

If you need to design a differential amplifier, here is a handy calculator. All you need to define are the input range, the output range and a choice of voltage reference.

The differential amplifier was explained in different articles on this website. Solving the Differential Amplifier – Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3 shows a numerical example and how to design such an amplifier. Also, the common mode voltage level and the common mode output error were explained in the series of articles The Differential Amplifier Common-Mode Error – Part 1 and Part 2.

Enter the input range, Vin1 to Vin2, the output range, Vout1 to Vout2 and a reference voltage Vref. You need to choose two resistors, R2 and R3. The calculator will compute R1 and R4.

## Summing Amplifier Calculator

### Bipolar to Unipolar Converter Example

The calculator solves the summing amplifier resistors based on the input and output voltage range requirements. It is a great tool to design a bipolar to unipolar converter, as an example and other circuits.

Enter the input range, Vin1 to Vin2, the output range, Vout1 to Vout2 and a reference voltage Vref which helps in adjusting the common-mode level of the amplifier. Since the 2-input summing amplifier has 4 resistors, you need to choose two resistors, R1 and R3, and calculate R2 and R4. For more details about this calculator read How to Design a Summing Amplifier Calculator.

## How to Design a Summing Amplifier Calculator

Several articles in this website describe the Summing Amplifier.  In one of these articles, Solving the Summing Amplifier, I showed a numeric method to design a non-inverting summing amplifier based on its input and output voltage range requirements.

This article shows how to design a summing amplifier calculator and the mathematical relations it uses.  You can find the calculator here:

JavaScript Summing Amplifier Calculator

Type the input voltage range, output range, a reference voltage and a choice of two resistors.  The calculator gives you the answer for the remaining two resistors.  The default values are for a bipolar to unipolar converter, which is explained in Design a Bipolar to Unipolar Converter to Drive an ADC.

What are the underlying equations?