Solving the Differential Amplifier – Part 1

Design a Differential Amplifier Based on the Input and Output Voltage Level Requirements

The differential amplifier, also known as the difference amplifier, is a universal linear processing circuit in the analog domain.  Why?  Because you can achieve any linear transfer function with it.  It can be reduced to a simple inverter, a voltage follower or a gain circuit.  It can also be transformed in a summing amplifier.


Figure 1

So, what is the common usage of the differential amplifier in Figure 1?  When the resistor ratios are equal


the amplifier transfer function is


and the circuit amplifies the difference between the input signals.

However, there are times when the electronics designer is faced with the following design requirements:  Given an input range of, say, -0.5V to 5.5V, the output has to swing between, say -1.25V and +2.365V.  It is clear that this requires an amplifier with a certain gain and an offset different than zero.  How can we design the differential amplifier to achieve such a function?

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