The RMS value of a pulse waveform can be easily calculated starting with the RMS definition. The pulse waveform is shown in Figure 1. The ratio t1/T is the pulse signal duty-cycle. As shown in other articles in this website (How to Derive the RMS Value of a Trapezoidal Waveform and How to Derive the RMS Value of a Triangle Waveform), the RMS definition is an integral over the signal period as in equation (1).

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(1) |

The pulse function, with the variable “time”, is a constant, which is the signal amplitude, between 0 and t1 and zero from t1 to T as in (2).

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(2) |

where with u1(t) I noted the function of the waveform in Figure 1. After replacing u1(t) in equation (1) we can find the RMS value squared as in the following expression.

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(3) |

Therefore, the RMS value of a pulse signal is

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(4) |

This expression can also be found as in (5)

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(5) |

where with *D* I noted the pulse signal duty cycle, D = t1/T.

What if the pulse signal is bipolar, as in Figure 2?

**Figure 2**

In this case we should expect that the negative section of the signal to also contribute to the energy delivered to the load. To calculate its RMS value, let’s split the signal in two: from 0 to t1 and from t1 to T as in (6).

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(6) |

where with u11(t) and u12(t) I noted the two sections of the waveform in Figure 2.

The RMS value of u11(t) is identical with the one shown in equation (3).

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(7) |

In a similar way, we can calculate the RMS value of u12(t):

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(8) |

The total RMS value of the bipolar pulse waveform is then calculated by applying the square root of the sum of squares of u11_{RMS} and u12_{RMS}.

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(9) |

After calculations, the RMS value of a bipolar pulse waveform is

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(10) |

As you can see, the bipolar pulse RMS value does not depend on its duty-cycle, and it is equal with its amplitude.

Knowing the RMS value of a pulse waveform we can easily calculate the RMS value of a periodic square signal. The square wave in Figure 3 is a pulse signal with 50% duty-cycle. Its RMS value can be calculated from equation (5), where D = 1/2. Its RMS value is given in (11).

**Figure 3**

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(11) |

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Hi,

I found this page very usefull for a recap but i belive there is a mistake in equation 7, which refers to equation 4, it should refer to equation 3.

At the moment it seems that the square of the Vp has vainish, to me it should be:

U11^2rms = Vp^2 * t1/T — or as per equation 3, U11^2= Vp^2/T * t1

Indeed, in eq 7 there was a typo. I corrected it. Thank you.

Hi,

Is this also valid for current pulse?

Yes, it is the same for current.

Salut. Stii cumva cum as putea afla valoare medie a unui semnal dreptunghiular nesimetric dandu-se doar factorul de umplere si frecventa?

English translation: Hello. Do you know how can I find the average value of an asymmetric pulse signal, knowing just the duty-cycle and frequency?You can think of it like this: A pulse signal with its amplitude between 0 and Vp (its peak value) and a duty-cycle d, has the average value:

VpulseAverage = d*Vp

If the signal is asymmetric, it has a negative value Vneg and a positive value Vpos. So, it’s amplitude is Vpos – Vneg and it is shifted down with Vneg. Therefore, the average value is:

VpulseAsymAverage = d * (Vpos-Vneg) + Vneg

where Vneg is taken with its negative sign.

Hi Adrian.

I have a question in relation to your post “Design a Bipolar to Unipolar Converter to Drive an ADC”.

I noticed that the feedback is configured to attenuate, and was wondering how does this affect stability, and phase margin. If I configure an inverting amp that attenuates in a similar manner will it be stable?

Also I can’t seem to launch an email from your web site. The verify for spam seems to be broken. Do you have an address I can send you a message?

Regards

Yes, it is stable, because it is a single pole system.

I will verify the contact page.

As for the email address, I will send you a message to the email address you left me with this comment.